Vegetarian Newsletter

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service

Vegetarian 00-10
October 2000

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WB01647_.gif (256 bytes) VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

WB01647a.gif (256 bytes) COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

WB01647b.gif (256 bytes) VEGETABLE GARDENING

List of Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

(Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.)

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Leadership in Vegetables (LIV) South Florida (southern region FL 107) - November 2, 10:00 AM - 4:00 PM, Immokalee, FL. Contact Charlie Vavrina at 941-658-3400.

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Hydroponics and Organic Herb Production

The term hydroponics is generally used to describe any of several methods of growing plants without soil. A number of packaged hydroponic systems are available for use in commercial production or by hobbyists. These systems are variously referred to as water culture, gravel or sand culture, soilless culture, bag culture, solution or liquid culture, nutri-culture, the nutrient film technique (NFT), and float systems.

Today hydroponic systems are widely used throughout the world by gardeners, researchers, and commercial producers. In fact, we have about 850 acres of hydroponic vegetables produced in the US today, mostly in greenhouses. Florida has about 75-80 acres of vegetables being produced in greenhouse hydroponic systems. Primary crops in Florida include: colored bell pepper, tomato, European cucumber, and lettuce. Other specialty crops are also produced including: strawberry, herbs, specialty greens, and edible flowers.

The primary production system used by growers in Florida is lay-flat bag culture with perlite or rockwool as the soilless media. This system is popular for tomato, cucumber, and pepper. Nutrient film technique and floating systems are popular for bibb lettuce and herbs.

Vertical hydroponic systems such as Verti-Gro®, Verzontal®, or vertical bag culture may also be quite useful to increase plant populations in limited and valuable greenhouse space.

Trials have also been conducted at the NFREC-Suwannee Valley near Live Oak, FL to develop a hydroponic system that utilizes organic nutrient programs. This organic project has been successful in the vertical culture of hers and leafy green vegetables.

(Robert Hochmuth, Multi Co. Agt. NFREC-Suwannee Valley, Vegetarian 00-10)

Soil Extraction Procedures for Florida Organic Soils: A Brief History

The Everglades Soil Testing Laboratory (ESTL) is located at the Everglades Research and Education Center in Belle Glade, FL. The ESTL is one of two University of Florida soil testing laboratories, and represents an important historic interface between the University of Florida/IFAS and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) grower community. The primary mission of the ESTL is to quantify soil-test nutrients and provide growers crop-specific fertilizer recommendations based on crop response field research. Historically, the ESTL has offered calibrated soil-test P and K recommendations based on in-house developed extraction procedures for a variety of crops including sugarcane, leafy vegetables, celery, radish, and sweet corn.

Current P fertilizer recommendations for vegetables (Hochmuth et al., 1994, 1996) and sugarcane (Gascho and Kidder, 1979; Sanchez, 1990) are based on water extractable soil-test P levels. This Pw protocol was originally developed for vegetable crop commodities and has been in use since the mid-1940s. The procedure is detailed in Thomas (1965), who attributes the water extraction procedure to earlier soil chemistry work by Forsee (1945a). During the early 1940s, Forsee conducted studies that focused on the merits of three extractants, including carbonic acid, 0.5N acetic acid, and distilled water. Based on the assessment of the correlation between soil-test P levels with celery tissue P concentrations, acetic acid extractions were found unreliable, particularly across soils of varying pH. Conclusions favored the use of either carbonic acid or water since resulting soil-test P values correlated best with P uptake during celery growth (Forsee, 1945b). Ultimately, the Pw was adopted since extractions with water were cheaper to conduct than with carbonic acid (Forsee and Erwin, 1947).

In theory, water extraction provides a good estimate of quickly solubilized soil P (intensity factor; readily available for plant growth over the short term), which suggests that the Pw protocol is appropriate for assessing P requirements for short-season vegetable crops. Measuring only the intensity factor appears less appropriate for projecting nutrient needs for longer-term agronomic crops such as sugarcane. This issue has stimulated an interest in alternative soil extraction procedures. Sanchez and Burdine (1987) stressed the need to investigate new extractants that were less sensitive to soil pH and P-buffering capacities while providing improved estimates of soil Fe-, Al-, and Ca-P fractions (labile or quantity factor; readily available for plant growth over the longer term).

Using lettuce as a test crop, Sanchez and Hanlon (1990) evaluated six extractants including water (Pw), sodium bicarbonate, Mehlich-1 (M-1), Mehlich-3 (M-3), and two organic agents, ethylene-diamine-tetraaceticacid (EDTA) and ammonium bicarbonate-diethylene-triamine-pentaaceticacid (AB-DTPA). In fact, none produced superior correlations to lettuce responses relative to the water extraction. The M-1 extractant has been used by the University of Florida Analytical Research Laboratory (Gainesville) since the late-1970s (Hanlon et al., 1990). However, the M-1 did not perform well on EAA organic soils with a wide pH range (Sanchez and Hanlon, 1990). An important factor to consider is that the underlying limestone bedrock in the EAA contributes carbonates into the soil profile which are moved to the soil surface through subsurface irrigation practices. Acids that comprise the M-1 extractant (HCl and H2SO4) can be partially neutralized by soil carbonates, which may reduce the chemical effectiveness of the extractant. On acidic (pH=5) Florida organic soils, the M-1 accurately predicted lettuce responses (Diaz et al., 1988).

Although the sodium bicarbonate, EDTA, and AB-DTPA extractants generally correlate well with crop responses on calcareous soils in the western USA, they appeared unsuitable for EAA organic soils, despite the presence of carbonates (Sanchez and Hanlon, 1990). However, the authors suggested that procedural difficulties encountered during their study may have undermined the effectiveness of the organic extractants. The M-3 showed promise as an alternative extractant and additional research was recommended for all crops produced on Florida organic soils. The M-3 has several advantages over water. First, the M-3 is a "universal" extractant (routinely used to determine soil-test P, K, Ca, Mg, and micronutrient levels), and second, the M-3 generates a wider soil-test P range than that produced by water.

The soil-testing laboratory at the U.S. Sugar Corporation (Clewiston, FL) adopted the Bray extraction in 1958 to assess soil P levels for sugarcane grown in the EAA (Andreis and McCray, 1998). The Bray was selected over a water-based extraction since Bray soil-test P levels reflected a higher percentage of the acid-soluble and adsorbed P fractions present in the soil. The reasonable assumption is that over time, these P species will become available to the long-season sugarcane crop. Korndörfer et al. (1995) investigated several extractants for sugarcane, including M-1, acetic acid, and water. Soil-test P levels produced from acetic acid (Pa) and M-1 were 7.2 and 4.3 times greater than soil-test Pw levels. Another way to interpret this is that the Pw range (0-8 mg P/L) was compressed relative to the M-1 (1-24 mg P/L) and Pa (6-39 mg P/L) ranges. The authors favored continued investigations with the Pa extractant since its extraction behavior may be less affected by the presence of free carbonates and high organic soil pH buffering capacities than for Pw and M-1 extractants.

Based on a collective assessment of sugarcane fertility research from 1968 through 1990, the Pa extractant was more correlated to biomass and sugar yields than were Pw and M-1 (Korndörfer et al., 1995). Because acetic acid is a more aggressive extractant than water, resulting Pa soil-test levels should reflect an estimate of the quickly solubilized soil P (intensity factor) as well as an estimate of labile P that would presumably become available over time.

This brief history may help put the current situation into perspective. Since the early 1940s, the ESTL has used water to assess soil-test P levels in organic soils. It’s pretty safe to claim that very few soil-testing laboratories across the USA routinely employ water as an extractant. Currently, all P fertilizer recommendations for sugarcane and vegetable crops grown on organic soils are based on the Pw extraction. In response to grower interest in more aggressive soil P extractions, the ESTL began offering an acetic acid (Pa) extraction in the late 1980s. Although significant efforts have been undertaken to calibrate the Pa for sugarcane, the current status of this work is uncertain. None-the-less, many growers continue to request Pa and likely use it to some degree to determine P fertilizer application rates.

In recent years, the importance of the ESTL mission has increased markedly due to the EAA Regulatory Program which requires growers (by 1995) to adopt comprehensive soil testing as a BMP for determining P fertilizer application rates. The current situation finds growers compelled to provide regulators documented evidence of soil testing conducted prior to fertilizer application. Combined with today’s deadline-driven agricultural marketplace, a premium is now placed on rapid turnaround time for soil-test results. Slow sample turnaround time has been a limitation for the ESTL. The in-house developed Pw and Pa procedures include a 20-hour overnight soaking step followed by a 50-minute end-over-end tumbling event on a home-made spinning device. Clearly, efficient extraction procedures (M-1, M-3, or Bray) requiring a simple 5-minute shaking event are viewed favorably by growers needing quick results.

The current situation finds growers submitting soil samples with increasing frequency to private soil-testing labs. Consequently, many growers are receiving soil-test values produced by a variety of extraction procedures, the most popular including the M-1, M-3, Bray, and sodium bicarbonate (which uses a 30-minute shaking event). Additionally, the habit of splitting soil samples across different soil-testing labs (including the ESTL) as a "cross-reference" strategy can raise more questions than answers since soil-test P levels differ according to the extraction method and different labs typically return different P fertilizer recommendations. A philosophical problem is also raised in that private labs do not necessarily offer calibrated soil-test fertilizer recommendations based on rigorous crop response studies conducted on EAA organic soils.

To what extent soil-test P levels produced by different extraction procedures correlate with one another is not clear, particularly for the high-pH organic soils of the EAA. An investigation is currently underway to compare and contrast soil-test P values produced by 9 different extraction procedures (Pw, Pa, modified Pa, M-1, M-3, Bray, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and AB-DTPA). This work is being conducted on 13 soils collected from different geographic regions of the EAA. These representative soil samples are also being used in a second study which seeks to quantify the effect that shorter soaking and/or tumbling times have on soil-test Pw, Pa, and K levels. Results of these comparative studies will be reported in future Vegetarian articles.

References

Andreis, H.J., and J.M. McCray. 1998. Phosphorus soil test calibration for sugarcane grown on Everglades Histosols. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 29:741-754.

Diaz, O.A., E.A. Hanlon, G.J. Hochmuth, and J.M. White. 1988. Phosphorus and potassium nutrition of lettuce on a Florida muck. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 47:36-41.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. 1945a. Application of rapid methods of laboratory analysis to Everglades soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 7:75-81.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. 1945b. Soil investigations. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, 1945. 199-202.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. 1950. The place of soil and tissue testing in evaluating fertility levels under Everglades conditions. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 15:297-299.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. and T.C. Erwin. 1947. Soil investigations. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Annual Report, 1947. 183-184.

Gascho, G.J., and G. Kidder. 1979. Responses to phosphorus and potassium and recommendations for sugarcane in south Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 809.

Hanlon, E.A., G. Kidder, and B.L. McNeal. 1990. Soil-test interpretations and recommendations. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. No. 817.

Hochmuth, G., E. Hanlon, R. Nagata, G. Snyder, and T. Schueneman. 1994. Fertilization recommendations for crisphead lettuce grown on organic soils in Florida. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Exp. Sta. Bull. SP-153.

Hochmuth, G., E. Hanlon, G. Snyder, R. Nagata, and T. Schueneman. 1996. Fertilization of sweet corn, celery, romaine, escarole, endive, and radish on organic soils in Florida. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Exp. Sta. Bull. 313.

Korndörfer, G.H., D.L. Anderson, K.M. Portier, and E.A. Hanlon. 1995. Phosphorus soil test correlation to sugarcane grown on Histosols in the Everglades. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59:1655-1661.

Sanchez, C.A. 1990. Soil testing and fertilization recommendations from crop production on organic soils in Florida. University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 876.

Sanchez, C.A., and H.W. Burdine. 1987. Relationship between soil-test P and K levels and lettuce yield on Everglades Histosols. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 47:52-56.

Sanchez, C.A., and E.A. Hanlon. 1990. Evaluation of selected phosphorus soil tests for lettuce on Histosols. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 21:1199-1215.

Thomas, F.H. 1965. Sampling and methods used for analysis of soil in the Soil Testing Laboratory of the Everglades Experiment Stations. Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES 65-18.

(Rice, Vegetarian 00-10)

Considerations for Weed Management in Florida

Methyl bromide has been used for soil fumigation under polyethylene mulch in Florida since the early 1970s. Other than weed control in mulched middles, there has not been a need nor an interest in screening nor labeling herbicides for annual strawberry production as found in Florida and California for over 20 years.

The announcement of the phase out of methyl bromide did generate activity in both Florida and California in looking for potential herbicides for use in a methyl bromide alternative situation. Pre-transplant herbicide screens were carried out several years (Stall, et.al., Proc. Fla. State Hort Soc., 1995) and several candidate herbicides were sent to IR-4 from Florida and California for tolerance establishment. Unfortunately, most of these were dropped from consideration due to lack of support by the manufacturers.

The lack of manufacturer support in establishing or labeling herbicides for strawberry production is due to the high monetary liability from a very small acreage where sales would be minimal and to the history of grower litigation. There are herbicides labeled in other states, but not in Florida due to these factors.

Consideration 1. For herbicides to be labeled for use on Florida strawberries, the industry should formally mobilize to establish third-party registrations.

The Florida Strawberry Grower’s Association could obtain these labels, but TPR Inc. with the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association already is established and has obtained third-party registrations of pesticides on other vegetable crops. To do this, they will need backing and support from the strawberry industry as a whole.

Pretransplant herbicides
At the present time, there are no herbicides labeled for application under the mulch, pre-emergent to the weeds and pretransplant to the strawberries. Devrinol is labeled, but at the present time, the label states it must be applied postransplant. United Phosphorus, who now holds the label, is in the process of changing the labeling.

Dupont is also considering changing the labeling of Sinbar from matted-row strawberries to include annual production practices that include application under mulch.

The major weed competition to strawberries will come from weeds emerging through the plant hole. PRE herbicides will be leached away from the plant hole due to the plant establishment overhead irrigation practices now used. The use of PRE herbicides is useless unless these practices change.

Consideration 2. Begin implementing low volume irrigation methodology for transplant establishment.

Postemergent herbicides
There are now no postemergent herbicides labeled in Florida. Due to the long growing season, hard seeded winter annuals are likely to emerge and grow through the plant holes after the preemergent herbicides lose their effectiveness mid-to-late season. Screening tests for POST herbicides are continuing at the University of Florida. A large number of potential herbicides have been eliminated due to unacceptable phytotoxicity to the strawberry foliage and blooms. Unfortunately, we haven’t found one singular material that will control all of the winter annuals that may be a problem. Several of the candidate herbicides tested are designated "reduced risk" by EPA. The rates will be very low, such as 0.25 oz/A. The tolerances between where the weeds are controlled and where strawberries will be damaged is not large either.

Consideration 3. Proper calibration and application will be extremely important.

The timing between application and harvest for potential fruit residue will have to be examined. Unfortunately, residue testing is very expensive. A number of candidate herbicides will have to be tested if one is to be labeled.

OFF Season Control
A factor that can help reduce pest problems in the crop is the use of several techniques to control or reduce the pests during the off season. This can be accomplished several ways, including fallowing, using proper cover crops, etc.

With the use of alternative fumigants, a waiting period from application to transplanting must be accomplished to allow the fumigant(s) to dissipate from the soil. There is a Goal + Roundup label for stale seed-bed application. The label states application of this treatment must be 30 days before transplanting. At the present time, this is probably too long to be useful, but possibly the pre-transplant period can be reduced.

These are but a few of the considerations that must be faced when methyl bromide is no longer available. Unfortunately, time is running out.

Those of us at the University of Florida are actively working to identify not only herbicides, but all other pest control methods and materials that can be used in strawberries. Unfortunately, we can only do so much.

Consideration 4. Obtaining and keeping pest control materials for use in strawberry production in Florida is a condition of grower control and function.

(Stall, Vegetarian 00-10)


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Scoring Table for a Largest-Vegetable Contest

Many Extension workers and others may someday want to hold a contest for gardeners who think they have grown the biggest vegetable. Agricultural fairs are the usual places to conduct such events. The most popular event held annually in Florida is the South Florida Fair Contest in West Palm Beach.

Please do not confuse these contests with the record-keeping I do on the state’s largest vegetables ever grown. There is no competition in the latter - just a way of recording achievements (see Table 2).

To conduct a contest, you will need a good set of scales. Most specimens brought in will weigh between 1 and 50 pounds, although occasionally, someone will bring in a larger pumpkin or watermelon. You can cut these into parts and weigh the parts, or find a larger scale.

First, make sure the specimen is trimmed according to the rules in Table 1. If not trimmed properly, you may have to trim it yourself.

Second, weigh the specimen, and convert to ounces.

Third, using Table 1, multiply the weight in ounces by the number of points given per ounce. Table 1 is calibrated so that different kinds may be compared, i.e. a tomato versus a pumpkin.

For example, a person brings in a tomato that weighs 2 pounds (32 ounces) while someone else has a 32 ounce summer radish. Which one wins? Just follow Table 1. The tomato wins because it generates 2.1 points per ounce (for a score of 67.2) as compared with the radish’s 1.7 points per ounce (for a score of 54.4).

Table 1. Revised Scoring Table for Big Vegetable Contests in Florida.

Vegetable

Supersize (lbs)

Points Per Ounce

Trimming

Beet

8.0

0.8

Trim stems and tap root to 1"

Boniata

12.0

.5

No multiple roots

Broccoli

5.0

1.3

Trim stalk to 1"

Cabbage

20.0

0.3

Trim stalk to 1"

Calabaza

30

0.2

Trim stalk to 2"

Carrot

3.0

2.0

Trim leaves to 1"

Cassava

10.0

0.6

No multiple roots

Cauliflower

15.0

0.4

Trim stalk to 1"

Corn, sweet

3.0

2.0

Un-shucked and trim stalk to 1"

Cucumber

4.0

1.6

No stem

Celery

4.0

1.6

Trim stalk to 1"

Eggplant

4.5

1.4

Trim stem to 1"

Garlic

2.0

3.1

Trim roots and top to 1"

Gourds

30

0.2

Trim stem to 1"

Jicama

20

0.3

Trim stem to 2"

Kohlrabi

20

0.3

Trim root and leaf stems to 1"

Lettuce

3.5

1.8

Trim base to 1"

Malanga

30

0.2

Trim base even-no leaves

Muskmelon

20

0.3

Trim stem to 1"

Mustard

10

0.6

Trim stalk to 1"

Okra

0.5

12..5

Trim stem to 1"

Onion

3.5

1.8

Trim top and roots to 1"

Pepper

1.0

6.3

Trim stem to 1"

Potato, Irish

3.0

2.1

No multiple tubers

Potato, sweet

30

0.2

No multiple roots (boniatas separate)

Pumpkin

300

0.02

Trim stem to 2"

Radish, summer

3.5

1.7

Trim stems and tap root to 1"

Radish, winter

20

0.3

Trim stems and tap root to 1"

Rutabaga

20

0.3

Trim leaves and tap root to 1"

Squash, summer

6

1.0

Trim stem to 1"

Squash, winter

60

0.1

Trim stem to 1"

Squash, Zucchini

12

0.5

Trim stem to 1"

Tomato

3

2.1

Trim stem to 1"

Turnip

15

0.4

Trim leaves and tap root to 1"

Watermelon

60

0.1

Trim stem to 1"

Winter melon

60

0.1

Trim stem to 1"

Yam, true

12

0.5

One continuous tuber

(Note: For any vegetable achieving a score of 100 +, check to see if it is a state record.) For contests, weigh vegetable, convert to ounces, and multiply by points/ounce. High score wins!

Table 2. Florida Record-size Vegetables (through 10-00).

Vegetable

Variety

Size

County

Grower

Date

Phone

Bean, Lima

Pole

9 1/2 inches

St. Lucie

Walter

04\12\95

407-335-7476

Beet

Detroit Red

8 lb. 1 oz.

Duval

Lewis

05\30\98

904-725-1177

Boniata

-

12 lb. 10 oz.

Seminole

Phillips

03\05\91

904-297-9251

Broccoli

-

5 lb. 4 oz.

Suwannee

Graham

06\06\93

904-658-1110

Cabbage

Early Round Dutch

20 lb. 9 oz.

St. Johns

Worley

05\28\97

904-829-8418

Cantaloupe

Colossal

29 lb. 8 oz.

Levy

Bumgardner

07\09\91

904-447-3555

Carrot

Chantenay

3 lb. 1 oz.

Pinellas

Nehls

04\16\93

813-784-5305

Cassava

unknown

11 lb. 6 oz.

Palm Beach

Carta

01\16\98

561-233-1712

Cauliflower

-

15 lb. 6 oz.

Alachua

Severino

02\19\92

904-373-7563

Chicory

Magdeburg

1 lb. 3 oz.

Alachua

Lazin

02\13\86

904-392-1928

Collard

Georgia

13 ft. 3 in.

Leon

Kelso

08\26\93

904-385-3869

Corn, sweet

Skyscraper

3 lbs

Suwannee

Graham

6/21/00

904-658-1110

Cucumber (wt)

Burpless

4 lb. 7 oz.

Suwannee

Graham

06\29\92

904-658-1110

Cucumber (length)

Burpless

27 in.

Suwannee

Graham

06\29\92

904-658-1110

Cucumber Armenian

Japanese

30 in.

Escambia

Harrison

08\01\96

904-477-0953

Eggplant

Black Beauty

4 lb. 8 oz.

Palm Beach

LaIuppa

01\17\92

407-798-0153

Garlic

Elephant

1 lb. 8 oz.

St. Johns

Hester

05\20\93

904-287-5874

Gourd

Field’s Common

55 lbs.

Suwannee

Graham

08\08\95

904-658-1110

Gourd, cucuzzi

---

61.5"

Hernando

Pizzino

07\18\94

---

Honeydew

Tam-dew

11 lbs. 2 oz.

Escambia

Harrison

08\04\96

904-477-0953

Jicama

-

21 lb. 8 oz.

Palm Beach

Oppe

01\26\93

407-233-1749

Kohlrabi

-

19 lb. 8 oz.

Duval

Faustini

06\05\93

904-744-5445

Lettuce

Grand Rapids

58 oz.

Suwannee

Graham

05\06\97

904-362-2771

Malanga

unknown

29 lb. 15 oz.

Palm Beach

Ozaki

01\12\96

407-793-7767

Melon, winter

-

80 lbs. 13 oz.

Palm Beach

Yee

01\17\97

407-793-7767

Mustard

Fla. Broadleaf

11 lbs. 15 oz.

Palm Beach

Sedgwick

07\17\00

561-743-0072

Okra, pod (wt)

-

8 oz.

Suwannee

Graham

06\28\93

904-658-1110

Okra, pod (length)

-

22 1/4 in.

Suwannee

Graham

06\28\93

904-658-1110

Okra, stalk

La. Green Velvet

19' 10½"

Flagler

Mikulka

10\27\94

904-498-7652

Onion

Grano

3 lb. 11 oz.

Manatee

Geraldson

08\07\90

813-792-9514

Pepper

Experimental Hy.

1 lb. 1 oz.

Palm Beach

Amestoy

02\02\90

407-734-0934

Potato, irish

Frito #92

2 lb. 13 oz.

St. Johns

Kight

05\23\89

904-824-4564

Potato, sweet

-

30 lb. 3 oz.

Seminole

Williams

01\25\93

904-322-3144

Pumpkin

Dill’s Atlantic Giant

517 lb.

Manatee

Canniff

07\15\00

941-756-9800

Radish, S.

Red Summer

3 lb. 12 oz.

Palm Beach

Vanderlaan

01\31\90

904-965-5093

Radish, W.

-

25 lb.

Hillsborough

Breslow

1977

-

Radish, W.

Daikon

23 lb. 5 oz.

Alachua

Neilson

03\28\92

904-472-2340

Rutabaga

-

22 lbs.

Lake

Salter

11\19\93

904-343-2623

Squash, calabaza

LaPrima

36 lbs. 8 oz.

Seminole

Chitty

08\16\91

407-365-5259

Squash, hub.

-

131 lb. 12 oz.

Santa Rosa

Bynum

10\26\94

904-675-6108

Squash, banana

-

47 lb.

Putnam

Bryant

07\12\96

-

Squash, butternut

-

23 lb. 12 oz.

Santa Rosa

Bynum

09\26\92

904-675-6108

Squash, scal.

-

3 lb. 12 oz.

Nassau

Horne

06\22\99

904-879-4861

Squash, spaghetti

 

47 lb. 9 oz.

Duval

Beck

09\09\96

904-642-6746

Squash, zucchini

Park’s Black

14 lb. 10 oz.

Nassau

Lynch

06\22\99

904-879-4861

Squash, summer

YSN

6 lb. 2 oz.

Escambia

Harrison

07\13\95

904-944-0315

Taro

-

8 oz.

Palm Beach

Oppe

01\17\92

407-233-1749

Tomato

Delicious

3 lb.

Marion

Spangler

07\11\90

904-625-1400

Turnip

Just Right

18 lb. 4 oz.

Union

Clyatt

01\20\93

904-752-7439

Watermelon

Carolina Cross

205 lb.

Levy

Bumgardner

07\21\92

904-447-3555

Yam (True)

-

12 lb. 15 oz.

Palm Beach

Oppe

01\26\93

407-233-1749

Yardlong Bean

 

52 inches

Orange

Yoganand

01/07/97

407-578-8583

(Stephens, Vegetarian, 00-10)

Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Daniel J. Cantliffe
Professor and Chairman, Horticultural Sciences Department
Mark A. Ritenour
Assistant Professor, postharvest

Timothy E. Crocker
Professor, deciduous fruits and nuts, strawberry

Ronald W. Rice
Assistant Professor, nutrition
John Duval
Assistant Professor, strawberry
Steven A. Sargent
Professor, postharvest
Chad Hutchinson
Assistant Professor, vegetable production
Eric Simonne
Assistant Professor, vegetable nutrition
Elizabeth M. Lamb
Assistant Professor, production
William M. Stall
Professor, weed control
Yuncong Li
Assistant Professor, soils
James M. Stephens
Professor and editor, vegetable gardening
Donald N. Maynard
Professor, varieties
Charles S. Vavrina
Associate Professor, transplants
Stephen M. Olson
Professor, small farms
James M. White
Associate Professor, organic farming


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